Cerebrovascular Diseases; It occurs when the vessels feeding the central nervous systems suffer from structure . These deformations can manifest as blockages or bleeding in the arteries and veins. Functional neurological deformations occur in both formations. Oxygen and nutritional needs of tissues cannot be met in vascular occlusion. In bleeding formations, blood infiltrates into or around the brain tissues. The terms brain attack stroke or stroke are often used to describe cerebrovascular diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases are clinically manifested in three types: thrombosis, embolism or bleeding.
The clotting of blood in the inner wall of the vein (arteries or veins) or in an organ for various reasons is called thrombosis . The occurring clot is called thrombus . If thrombosis occurs in the formation of vessels that feed the brain, this formation is called cerebral thrombosis.
Etebral Thrombosis Etiology
In general, atherosclerotic or inflammatory changes in the vessel walls come together with the slowing of blood flows and form thrombosis. Other factors that cause thrombosis formation are as follows:
- Hypertension in individuals (It has negative effects on the functions of the heart as well as progressive narrowing of the cerebral vein.),
- Diabetes mellitus (Causes deforming of the vascular endothelium),
- Formation of hyperlipidemia can be observed,
- Hematocrit values increase to 55% and above
- The occurrence of polycythemia,
- Platelet counts above 500,000 / mm3,
- Formation of collagen tissue diseases,
- Obesity of individuals,
- Lack of regular exercise life,
- Excessive alcohol consumption,
- Observing oral contraceptives
Symptoms and Findings of Cerebral Thrombosis
Symptoms and signs vary according to the brain region and brain tissues fed by blocked arteries and the damage they cause. These signs and symptoms that occur are as follows:
- Headaches can be seen
- Observing visual deformations,
- Impaired eye function (formation of paralysis in the eye muscles),
- Deformations in speech ability,
- Formation of blurring consciousness,
- Temporary numbness that occurs in the arms and legs,
- Loss of strength or paralysis occurring in the muscles (when individuals cannot move their arms and legs. Paralysis or stroke, as they are known among the people)
Diagnostic Methods of Cerebral Thrombosis
- It is provided to take the anamnesis of the patient.
- Clinical evaluations are made.
- Neurological examination is done
- Brain computed tomography acquisition is requested
- Requests for brain magnetic resonance imaging are done
- Laboratory tests are provided.
- CSF proteins, serum cholesterol, in lab tests generally performed on patients. and triglyceride amounts are high.
- Definitive diagnosis made, serb. Doppler angiography is performed by measuring angiography and vascular blood flow.
- The medical method can be used as a treatment method or it can be used in surgical intervention.
It is called the embolism to cause the peripheral vein occlusion in the circulatory system, such as coagulation, fat, air mass . Embolio formation is named according to its location. If it is observed in the cerebral vein (s), it is called cerebral embolism . The difference between thrombosis formation and embolism is that the clotting occurring in the vein is occluded. Embolism generally manifests itself by joining the circulatory system and occlusion of the clot that occurs as a result of deformation in the heart valves. Embolism occurs suddenly and starts suddenly and does not show temporary ischemic attack frequently. Behind the vascular occlusion, nutrition, oxygenation starts to deteriorate in the brain tissues and stroke develops.
Etiology of Cerebral Embolism
- Occurrence of congestive heart failure,
- Observation of atrial fibrillation formations,
- Acute development of myocardial infarction,
- The occurrence of endocarditis,
- The appearance of rheumatic heart diseases (Aortic and mitral valve deformations),
- Eksrasistol are
- It may occur due to fracture formations (oil embolism and air embls.) That occur after various surgical procedures.
- In some tumors, neoplasms can also cause embolism.
- Bacterial endocarditis formations can be another cause of septic embolism.
Symptoms and Findings of Cerebral Embolism
Different symptoms and signs occur according to the degree of damage in brain tissues. Generally, there are faster and widespread tissue deformities compared to thrombosis formation. Therefore, a heavier clinical picture can be observed. The signs and symptoms that may occur in this created table are as follows:
- Hemiplegia may occur. (It is the formation of one-sided paralysis in the right or left part of the body of individuals),
- Paraplegia formation manifests itself (It is a paralysis situation that occurs on both sides of the body),
- Various sensitivities / deformities occurring in the sense of sight may occur (Half vision / hemianopsia),
- Different degrees of neurological symptoms occur, such as sudden loss of consciousness.
Diagnostic Methods for Cerebral Embolism
- It is provided to take the anamnesis of the patient.
- Physical examinations and neurological examinations of the patients are performed.
- In addition, assistance can be obtained from the necessary imaging methods. (Computed Tomography / Magnetic Resonance / Angiography etc.)
Cerebral Embolism Treatment
The cause of the formation of embolism is investigated and treatment is directed towards the cause of the disease. If neurological sequelae development has been observed after embolism formation, patients should be referred to rehabilitation immediately in the early period. The most appropriate rehabilitation program should be prepared for patients and patients should be encouraged to comply with the program.
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