Epilepsy formations occur as a result of deformations occurring within the electrical activity of the brain. It is a chronic disease caused by recurrent epileptic seizures due to brain function deformations occurring in a short time. Seizures are; It is a clinical picture that develops with uncontrolled and excessive electrochemical stimulation of a number of nerve tissues, and exhibits abnormal motor activities and psychological behavior. In general, it is also known as epilepsy disease, epilepsy disease . While the brain of a patient diagnosed with epilepsy can perform normal activities, it begins to show a sudden, excessive and uncontrollable activation during seizures. These episodes can be unusual sensations that others do not notice, as well as severe seizures such as contractions, shouting and loss of consciousness.
There is no obvious reason for most epilepsy cases. Epilepsy disease is a disease that can occur in any age group regardless of age and gender. Etiological factors are therefore quite diverse. These are
- Traumas, head blows during childbirth,
- A number of tumors that occur / occur,
- Central nervous system infection formations (encephalitis, meningitis),
- Degenerative disease groups,
- Metabolic deformations,
- Acute developing fever
- Genetic factors
- Congenital malformations
Epilepsy Symptoms and Findings
Epileptic seizures progress in three periods.
- The Aura Period: These are the first symptoms that occur by individuals. According to the anatomical structure where electrochemical stimuli begin, various sensations appear in the form of taste, smell, hearing, affective deformations, and memory blur. Aura period shows different formation in each individual. Usually, the same symptoms occur in the same person before attacks of seizures. Individuals may feel that they will have seizures for this reason.
- Seizure Period : It begins with loss of consciousness in the continuation of the Aura period. Tonic clonic contractions occur throughout the body. In the tonic period, individuals’ jaws are locked, breathing stops and cyanosis development is observed. Their jaws can be opened and closed, and foam can come out of their mouths.
- Postictal Period (post-seizure period): This process may take a few minutes, but may vary from individual to individual, but may take several days. Consciousness is clear, but individuals have a state of sleep. In addition, patients experience weakness, weakness and muscle pain. Epilepsy symptoms may differ from individual to individual. Not all of the following symptoms can be observed in every individual.
- Loss of consciousness / Mind blur
- Mild / severe tremors, falling to the ground
- Diving away in routine rests / seats
- Having shortness of breath, respiratory failure
- Bruising on tissue surfaces and facial area
- Excessive / overdose saliva secretion
- Urinary incontinence
- Failure to provide motion controls
- The emergence of surprises after the crisis
- Observation of sleepiness after the crisis.
Epileptic seizures have very different structures. Approximately forty different types and even over forty seizure types / types have been defined. Symptoms of each type of epileptic seizure differ. Despite these existing types of seizures, each individual’s seizure / seizure may show some individual-specific differences. Epileptic seizures can vary from a few seconds to several minutes, depending on the type of occurrence. In very rare cases, the seizure can take hours. International Epilepsy and War Association (ILAE) seizure types are always updated according to new information. These very different epilepsy seizures can be grouped into three groups as partial, generalized and unclassified epilepsy seizures in general.
Partial Epilepsy Seizures
This type of seizures occur by stimulating some of the brain cells. There is a focal neural function deformation in a certain part of the brain. The whole brain does not affect this condition. It affects a certain area of the body according to the part where the current seizure originates, and the rest of the body continues its normal function. It can also be named regionally according to the regional influence area according to the region of involvement.
Generalized Epilepsy Seizures
In this type of seizures, simultaneous deformations occur in both spheres of the brain. During the seizure, loss of consciousness may occur. Individuals who are exposed to such seizures cannot remember that they lived during the seizure.
Unclassified Epilepsy Seizures
It is a type of seizure that cannot be included in other categories due to lack of sufficient information about it. From these formations, the status epileptic seizure is defined as an epileptic seizure that lasts longer than 30 minutes, or that seizures occur so often that they do not improve consciousness. The hours in the pediatrics group can last from 1 to 2 days in adult individuals. This seizure experienced; It is a condition that threatens the vital functions of individuals and requires urgent intervention as much as possible.
Diagnostic methods of Epilepsy
- The patient’s anamnesis is ensured.
- Physical and neurological examination is performed.
- If a possible infection is suspected, lumbar puncture is performed.
- Laboratory examinations are carried out by diseases that can cause epileptic seizures.
- The main diagnosis of epilepsy is made by recording brain electrical signals by EEG (electroencephalography) recording. In addition, scintigraphy, angiography request, MR imaging and computed brain tomography can be taken.
In the treatment of epilepsy disease, drug therapy is applied to stop the seizures. Drug treatment is not enough to completely cure epilepsy, but it may prevent seizures that may occur or decrease the number of seizures. If the cause of epileptic seizures occurred due to structural disorders such as brain tumors and vascular anomalies, surgical intervention may be performed.
NOTE: The content is for informational purposes only and diagnosis and treatment should not be performed by only looking at this information.